7 Dead in Shootings in Half Moon Bay

A suspect was fully cooperating with the authorities, the police said. It is the second mass shooting in California in three days.

ImageInvestigators near a farm in Half Moon Bay, Calif., on Monday.
Credit...Jim Wilson/The New York Times
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What to know about the shootings in Half Moon Bay.

HALF MOON BAY, Calif. — Seven people were shot to death on Monday afternoon in San Mateo County, Calif., the sheriff’s office said, the second mass shooting in the state in three days.

The shooting happened around 2:20 p.m. local time at two separate locations near Highway 92 and the Half Moon Bay city limits, about 30 miles south of San Francisco, the authorities said. An eighth person was transported to Stanford Medical Center with life-threatening injuries.

Here is the latest:

  • A suspect, Zhao Chunli, 67, of Half Moon Bay, was found in his car in the parking lot of a sheriff’s office substation in Half Moon Bay, the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office said.

  • Sheriff Christina Corpus said at a news conference on Monday night that the suspect had been taken into custody “without incident,” and that a semi-automatic handgun had been found in his vehicle. The authorities said that he was “fully cooperating,” and that they believe he acted alone.

  • Sheriff Corpus said that the suspect was believed to be a worker at an agricultural nursery, one of the two shooting sites.

  • Farmworkers and several children were present when the shootings took place, the sheriff said, adding that it was “unspeakable” that the children witnessed the violence.

  • “There is no current outstanding threat to the community,” the sheriff’s office said in a statement, which also said that no motive was known.

  • A family reunification center was set up at the IDES Hall, run by a historic religious society, in Half Moon Bay.

Jan. 24, 2023, 2:26 a.m. ET

Half Moon Bay is a small seaside town in flux.

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Credit...Jim Wilson/The New York Times

HALF MOON BAY, Calif. — The seaside town of Half Moon Bay feels like it is a world away from the nearby Northern California high-tech metropolitan centers of Silicon Valley.

The rural town is tucked between San Francisco and Santa Cruz and is the oldest settlement in San Mateo County. It was founded in the 1800s as an agricultural outpost for a Spanish mission in San Francisco, quickly becoming a popular agricultural and fishing area.

Thanks to the railroad, it grew and became a hot spot during Prohibition, when the region’s famous fog helped runners bring in illegal liquor in the 1920s. A few years later, the town was used by the U.S. Army as a radar site to monitor enemy aircraft approaching the California coast.

It was incorporated as a city in California only in 1959, and today about 12,000 people fit neatly into its 6.25 square miles. The legacy of agriculture and fishing remain. The region’s rich soil and temperate climate lend themselves to the cultivation of decorative flowers and vegetables.

Half Moon Bay is best known for a pumpkin festival that can draw hundreds of thousands of people.

Tourism is a main source of income, with the Ritz-Carlton hotel the biggest employer. Surfing at Half Moon Bay’s four-mile-long stretch of beaches is one of the biggest draws.

At the same time, the city is in flux. As in much of California, real estate prices have soared in the past decade, making some of the city unaffordable to those who have lived there for generations. Meanwhile, the pandemic hit the city hard, as tourism money dried up.

A correction was made on 
Jan. 24, 2023

An earlier version of this article included a photo with caption information from AFP via Getty Images that incorrectly identified a beach as Half Moon Bay. The beach was Martin’s Beach.

How we handle corrections

Locations of the Shootings

By Julie Walton Shaver

Jan. 24, 2023, 1:02 a.m. ET

Investigators brought in a detective who speaks Mandarin to interview the suspect, who told police he would be cooperating after he was detained, Captain Eamonn Allen of the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office said.

Jan. 24, 2023, 12:50 a.m. ET

About 40 people were sheltering at the I.D.E.S. Portuguese Hall of Half Moon Bay, a large brick community center in downtown, after the deadly shootings on Monday. The group ranged in age from children, including one playing with a German Shephard police dog, to elderly people.

Jan. 24, 2023, 1:28 a.m. ET

All of them had been victims of the shooting or had been displaced from their homes because of the investigation, said Captain Eamonn Allen of the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office.

Jan. 23, 2023, 11:45 p.m. ET

‘Only in America’: California grapples with a mounting toll of gun violence.

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Credit...Jim Wilson/The New York Times

HALF MOON BAY, Calif. — A barrage of gun violence left California searching for answers on Tuesday after the death toll from a series of mass shootings, spanning the state from a farmworker community near San Francisco to a Los Angeles suburb, rose to at least 19 people in less than three days.

The attacks posed yet another challenge for beleaguered Californians, who have only begun to recover from weeks of ferocious rainstorms that flooded homes and smashed piers and levees. Even in a vast state of nearly 40 million people, most everyone was feeling the anguish, no matter where they live.

“We’re exhausted, we’re frightened, we’re angry,” Dr. Garen J. Wintemute, an emergency room doctor who directs the Violence Prevention Research Program at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center, said.

In Northern California, a 66-year-old man was in custody after seven people were shot dead on Monday near Half Moon Bay, a coastal community known for its small, fog-draped farms and an annual pumpkin festival. Officials at the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office said the suspect, Zhao Chunli, had been employed at one of the farms he attacked and was likely driven by workplace grievances.

In Southern California, investigators continued searching for a motive in the massacre on Saturday night at a ballroom dance hall in Monterey Park, an Asian American enclave where 11 people were killed and nine were wounded. The suspect — Huu Can Tran, 72, a former volunteer dance instructor who the authorities said may have been driven by personal animosities — killed himself on Sunday as the police approached his white van.

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Credit...Jim Wilson/The New York Times
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Credit...Jim Wilson/The New York Times

Those tragedies, however, were only two in a series of mass shootings this month in a state that, overall, has some of the nation’s lowest mortality rates from gun violence, as well as some of its toughest gun laws. Last week, in an attack that the authorities compared to a drug cartel-style execution, six people were shot dead in rural Tulare County in California’s Central Valley, including a 16-year-old girl and her 10-month-old baby. On Monday night, one person was killed and seven people were wounded in a gun battle in Oakland.

On Tuesday, Gavin Newsom, the California governor, visited Half Moon Bay about 24 hours after trying to console injured victims in Monterey Park. Governor Newsom had been at a hospital when he learned of the Half Moon Bay shootings, he said.

“I didn’t want to be here, and I don’t want to be here,” Mr. Newsom said, pulling notes out of his pocket that he said contained the same talking points he used after mass shootings at a San Jose transit yard, a garlic festival in Gilroy and a cowboy-themed bar in Thousand Oaks.

“I started writing ‘Monterey Park.’ Now I have to write in ‘Half Moon Bay.’ What the hell is going on here?” he asked. “It’s said, and it’s said all the time: Only in America.”

In Washington, there was renewed talk of pursuing new gun measures, including legislation introduced by Senator Dianne Feinstein, Democrat of California, to reimpose the assault rifle ban which expired nearly two decades ago.

But the mass shootings in California have once again underscored a political reality on Capitol Hill: Even after a series of massacres that have shaken the country, Congress is unlikely to muster a bipartisan consensus to enact any additional gun control measures.

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Credit...Mark Abramson for The New York Times
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Credit...Mark Abramson for The New York Times

President Biden said that he was “working out a number of things that we can and are going to be doing” to address gun violence in conjunction with leaders from California.

“I am asking you all to send that to my desk as quickly as you can,” Mr. Biden said, even though he knew the chances of it passing Congress were slim to none.

On Tuesday night, Speaker Kevin McCarthy told reporters that California, his home state, already had some of the strictest gun laws in the nation. And he said he would not commit to taking up any new gun laws until he had more information about the shootings in Half Moon Bay and Monterey Park, which he described as atypical because of the older age of the gunmen.

California’s rate of firearm mortality has been among the nation’s lowest, with 8.5 gun deaths per 100,000 people in 2020, compared with 13.7 per 100,000 nationally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported. A recent Public Policy Institute of California analysis found that Californians are about 25 percent less likely to die in mass shootings, compared with residents of other states.

Those odds, however, were cold comfort on Tuesday as communities impacted by recent shootings sought answers.

In Half Moon Bay, a city of about 12,000 people that remains isolated enough to maintain a small-town vibe that has disappeared elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay Area, residents struggled to comprehend how the ongoing wave of violence reached their sliver of the Pacific Coast. Pancho Purica, 62, the owner of a convenience store selling tortillas, beer and spices, wondered aloud whether the world had become “cuckoo.”

Fatima Machado, who was working in the parish office of Our Lady of the Pillar, said the town seemed unusually empty, with almost no cars on the road. She thought people were staying home after the shock of the shooting.

“It’s just so surreal that this happened in our little town,” Ms. Machado, 70, said. “You see it on the news. Monterey Park, Oakland — but those are big places. Not Half Moon Bay.”

Steve Wagstaffe, the district attorney in San Mateo County, which includes Half Moon Bay, said that the scope of the investigation posed a challenge even for a jurisdiction in the heart of Silicon Valley. “Cases like this — we’ve never had one in this county,” he said.

The sheriff’s office was still working Tuesday to identify the victims and notify their families, a process that was complicated by the fact that some of the victims were migrants. All the victims were adults, and some lived at the location of one of the shootings along with children, Sheriff Christina Corpus said.

“It was in the afternoon, when kids were out of school,” she said. “For children to witness this is unspeakable.”

San Mateo County authorities said the suspect in the Half Moon Bay shootings, who is expected to be formally charged on Wednesday, had lived in the community and may have worked with some of the victims, and had legally purchased the semiautomatic handgun he used in the shooting.

“There were no specific indicators” in the criminal history of Mr. Zhao, the suspect, a spokesman for the sheriff’s department added, “that would have led us to believe he was capable of something like this.”

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Credit...Mark Abramson for The New York Times
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Credit...Mark Abramson for The New York Times

But in court documents filed in a 2013 request for a temporary restraining order, a roommate accused Mr. Zhao of threatening to split his head open with a knife and trying to suffocate him after a workplace dispute in which Mr. Zhou had quit a restaurant job and was unable to get it back.

In his application for the order, which a Santa Clara County judge granted, Jingjiu Wang wrote that Mr. Zhao had crept into his room at their shared San Jose apartment in March 2013 and demanded his paycheck. When Mr. Wang was unable to produce it, he said, “Mr. Zhao said to me, today I am going to kill you,” and then attacked him, trying to smother him with a pillow. Two days later, he said, Mr. Zhao warned him that “bad things could happen” and threatened to bury a kitchen knife in his skull if he did not help him get the restaurant job back.

In Los Angeles County, investigators said that, like the Half Moon Bay suspect, the gunman in Monterey Park had legally purchased the semiautomatic weapon with which the massacre was committed. According to two law enforcement officials briefed on the matter who requested anonymity because of the sensitivity of the investigation, Mr. Tran had bought his MAC-10, which was equipped with an extended capacity magazine, in the 1990s, before California began imposing a series of bans on such rapid-fire weapons.

Officials said they are still trying to determine if the gun had been altered in a way that would have made it illegal to possess at the time of the shooting. Detectives also have seized two other guns in the investigation: the handgun the police say Mr. Tran used to shoot himself as pursuing officers closed in on him Sunday after a regionwide manhunt and a rifle found at his home in a Hemet, Calif., trailer park.

In Southern California, the authorities released the names of the 11 people who were killed in the Saturday night shooting as families mourned the loss of beloved parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, brothers and sisters.

The Los Angeles County coroner’s office, which has spelled the names of victims differently at various points this week, on Tuesday identified the six women as Diana Man Ling Tom, 70; Muoi Dai Ung, 67; My My Nhan, 65; Lilian Li, 63; Hongying Jian, 62; and Xiujuan Yu, 57. The five men were identified as Chia Ling Yau, 76; Ming Wei Ma, 72; Yu Lun Kao, 72; Valentino Marcos Alvero, 68; and Wen Tau Yu, 64.

New details emerged on Tuesday that were both heartbreaking and horrific.

Shortly after 10 p.m. on Saturday, Ms. Nhan, 65, and her dance partner that night, an older man, decided to leave the Lunar New Year celebration at Star Ballroom Dance Studio a little early.

Ms. Nhan was driving, and she was beginning to back up when she noticed a figure walking behind her vehicle. She stepped on the brake to allow the person to keep going. Within seconds, the interaction turned tragic.

In the quiet parking lot, the figure — later identified by the authorities as the gunman — walked up to the driver’s side window and shot Ms. Nhan several times. Ms. Nhan, known as Mymy, was the first person fatally shot in the rampage. Her passenger managed to escape uninjured and recount Ms. Nhan’s last moments to her relatives.

Ms. Nhan gravitated toward any activity she considered part of a healthy lifestyle, like ballroom dancing — especially salsa and waltz, her niece, Fonda Quan, said, adding that Ms. Nhan had also been taking care of her mother, who died a little more than a month ago.

After grieving for weeks, she said, “we were really looking forward to, you know, start that Lunar New Year fresh. And unfortunately, this happened.”

Victoria Kim contributed reporting from Monterey Park, Tim Arango, Jill Cowan and Livia Albeck-Ripka from Los Angeles and Anabel Sosa and Irene Benedicto from Half Moon Bay. Reporting was also contributed by Edgar Sandoval, Peter Baker, Annie Karni, Ang Li and Muyi Xiao. Susan C. Beachy and Kitty Bennett contributed research.

Jan. 23, 2023, 11:45 p.m. ET

“Anyone here just trying to do the hard work of putting food on all of our tables, they should be safe at work and safe in their housing,” said Elizabeth Strater, director of strategic campaigns for the United Farm Workers. “It’s heartbreaking to think about the families torn apart just trying to live their lives.”

Jesus Jimenez
Jan. 23, 2023, 11:39 p.m. ET

Reporting from Dallas

Scott Wiener, a California state senator, said on Twitter that Half Moon Bay is “now part of the tidal wave of gun violence suffocating our country,” adding that “our country needs the will to say enough.”

Jan. 23, 2023, 11:03 p.m. ET

The neighborhood where one of the Half Moon Bay shootings took place is home to a few farms and houses. It is now marked by a heavy police presence.

John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:54 p.m. ET

The F.B.I. is assisting in the investigation of the shooting in Half Moon Bay, providing investigative and forensic resources, the bureau’s San Francisco field office said on Twitter. The San Mateo Sheriff’s Office is the lead investigative agency.

Jan. 23, 2023, 10:39 p.m. ET

I'm at the suspect's home, which is right off a highway. A swarm of law enforcement officers is at the front door. There are no streetlights. Blue and white flashing lights from a sheriff's car illuminate a back road to the neighborhood between a lot with gas tanks and trucks and a row of tall hedges. No movement is being allowed in or out of the neighborhood.

Andrea Kannapell
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:27 p.m. ET

“Two hours ago I joined my colleagues on the Capitol steps for a vigil for the victims of the shooting in Monterey Park,” Marc Berman, a California assemblyman, said on Twitter. “Before we’ve even had a chance to mourn them, there is yet another mass shooting — this time in Half Moon Bay. In my district.”

Jan. 23, 2023, 10:25 p.m. ET

Sarah Prentice, 31, started crying as she walked down to the community center in downtown Half Moon Bay to drop off blankets. “You don’t really expect these things to happen in your hometown. And I guarantee that someone I know knows someone who was killed. That’s the kind of community it is. It’s small.”

Andrea Kannapell
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:25 p.m. ET

Gov. Gavin Newsom said on Twitter that he had been at a hospital, meeting victims of the mass shooting in Monterey Park, “when I get pulled away to be briefed about another shooting. This time in Half Moon Bay. Tragedy upon tragedy.”

Jan. 23, 2023, 10:22 p.m. ET

This is the moment the suspected gunman was taken into custody by the police.

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 Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:17 p.m. ET

Investigators believe that the gunman had one semi-automatic weapon.

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Credit...Jeff Chiu/Associated Press
John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:15 p.m. ET

Some workers lived at the location of one of the shootings, along with children, Sheriff Christina Corpus said. “It was in the afternoon when kids were out of school,” she said. “For children to witness this is unspeakable.”

John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:11 p.m. ET

San Mateo County officials expressed anger at the prevalence of gun violence in the United States. “There are simply too many guns in this country, and there has to be a change," said Dave Pine, a San Mateo County district supervisor.

Jan. 23, 2023, 10:10 p.m. ET

Zhao Chunli, the suspect, was fully cooperating with the authorities, Sheriff Christina Corpus said.

Jan. 23, 2023, 10:09 p.m. ET

The victims’ families had not been contacted as of about 7 p.m. local time, Sheriff Christina Corpus said. “We’re waiting to ID the victims,” she said.

 Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:05 p.m. ET

The two shooting locations were about a mile apart. The gunman moved from one to the other in a vehicle, said Sheriff Christina Corpus.

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Credit...Carlos Gonzalez/San Francisco Chronicle, via Associated Press
John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:04 p.m. ET

The sheriff’s office was working with the district attorney’s office to interview the suspect. Sheriff Christina Corpus added that she believed he “may have a spouse.”

John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:02 p.m. ET

Sheriff Christina Corpus said that the suspect is believed to be a worker at an agricultural nursery where one of the attacks occurred.

 Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 10:00 p.m. ET

Several children were present at the scene of the shootings, according to officials.

 Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 9:56 p.m. ET

One person at the scene had life-threatening injuries and was transferred to a hospital, according to officials.

Jan. 23, 2023, 9:55 p.m. ET

Downtown Half Moon Bay is empty tonight after the shooting. Churches have been transporting people to a community center, where an official says about 10 people are waiting for information and other people are dropping off items like blankets.

Sean Plambeck
Jan. 23, 2023, 9:54 p.m. ET

Sheriff Christina Corpus of San Mateo County said that a motive for the shootings was not yet known but that the gunman was believed to have acted alone.

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 Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 9:53 p.m. ET

On Monday night, Sheriff Christina Corpus gave a press conference. The shooting was first reported at 2:20 pm. Upon arrival at the scene, deputies found four bodies with gunshot wounds.

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WEBVTT 00:00:00.000 —> 00:00:03.930 Today, at 2:22 p.m., sheriff’s deputies 00:00:03.930 —> 00:00:07.950 were dispatched to the 12700 block of San Mateo 00:00:07.950 —> 00:00:11.640 Road, Highway 92, in unincorporated San Mateo 00:00:11.640 —> 00:00:14.220 County, on the report of a shooting 00:00:14.220 —> 00:00:16.740 with multiple victims. 00:00:16.740 —> 00:00:20.310 Upon arrival, deputies located four victims, 00:00:20.310 —> 00:00:23.880 deceased with gunshot wounds. 00:00:23.880 —> 00:00:27.390 A fifth victim, also suffering from a gunshot wound, 00:00:27.390 —> 00:00:30.980 was transported to Stanford Medical Center with 00:00:30.980 —> 00:00:33.240 life-threatening injuries. 00:00:33.240 —> 00:00:36.870 Shortly thereafter, three additional victims 00:00:36.870 —> 00:00:41.190 were also located, deceased, with gunshot wounds 00:00:41.190 —> 00:00:46.380 at a separate shooting scene in the 2100 block of Cabrillo 00:00:46.380 —> 00:00:48.350 Highway South.

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John Yoon
Jan. 23, 2023, 9:51 p.m. ET

The San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office identified a second location, where three victims died from gunshot wounds, as the 2100 block of Cabrillo Highway South.

Jan. 23, 2023, 9:51 p.m. ET

San Mateo County Sheriff Christina Corpus will be hosting a news conference at the Half Moon Bay substation shortly.

Jin Yu Young
Jan. 23, 2023, 7:44 a.m. ET

The suspects’ ages stand out among mass shooters.

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Credit...Alisha Jucevic for The New York Times

The gunmen in the shootings on Monday afternoon in Half Moon Bay, Calif., and Saturday night in Monterey Park, Calif., were identified by local authorities as 67- and 72-year-old men. Their ages are rare among the country’s lengthening list of mass killers, who tend to be much younger.

The median age of gunmen in mass shootings in the United States over the past six decades is 32, according to the Violence Project, a nonprofit research center funded by the National Institute of Justice. As of 2020, there has been only one other mass shooter over the age of 70.

Mass shooters tend to “target locations that are representative of the grievances that they have,” says James Densley, the co-founder of the Violence Project and a professor of the School of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice at Metro State University in Minnesota. He added that mass shooters in school settings are often students. The Uvalde and Sandy Hook shootings were carried out by former students of the respective schools.

Monterey Park is a predominantly Asian and Asian American community. Several of the victims in Saturday’s shootings were in their 50s and 60s. The victims of Monday’s shooting have not yet been identified.

While the average age of a mass shooter is in the early 30s, there are clusters who carry out shooting sprees while in their 20s and 40s, a reflection of how these attackers may be in “transitional times” in which “you feel like you don’t fit in, and violence follows,” said Professor Densley. He called the gunman in Monterey Park an “outlier” in terms of his age.

The overwhelming majority of mass shooters in the Violence Project report were men. This likely reflects the social pressure on males to “be stronger, tougher and have the final word, with that final word sometimes being violence,” said Vickie Jensen, a professor in the Department of Criminology and Justice Studies at California State University, Northridge.

Social media has been cited as a factor in recent shootings by young men, including the attacks in Uvalde, Texas, and Buffalo, reflecting “a problem that intersects with the distribution and the reinforcement of the rigid and hegemonic idea of toxic masculinity,” Professor Jensen said. This was not an issue several decades ago.

There have been a few mass shootings in the United States in which the shooter was over 60 years old.

In one of the largest, the 2017 shooting in Las Vegas that left 58 dead, the shooter, Stephen Paddock, was 64. A former postal worker and tax auditor, Mr. Paddock’s mental and physical health had been deteriorating in the months leading up to the shooting.

Jan. 22, 2023, 10:31 a.m. ET

The list of U.S. mass shootings continues to grow.

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Credit...Carlos Bernate for The New York Times

The mass shooting that left at least seven people dead in Half Moon Bay, Calif., on Tuesday was the second mass shooting in the state in three days.

A suspect is in custody and is cooperating with investigators, according to the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office

There is no consensus on what constitutes a mass shooting, complicating the efforts of government, nonprofits and news organizations to document the scope of the problem. The Gun Violence Archive, a nonprofit research group, defines a mass shooting as involving at least four people killed or injured.

By that measure, there have been at least 38 mass shootings so far in 2023, according to the group. It counted 648 mass shootings last year, 21 of which involved five or more fatalities.

Here is a partial list of recent mass shootings in the United States:

Jan. 21: Monterey Park, Calif.

At least 11 people were killed in Monterey Park, a small community east of Los Angeles, when a gunman opened fire at a ballroom frequented by Chinese American dancers. It was the deadliest mass shooting in the United States since the massacre in Uvalde, Texas, last May, when 19 children and two teachers were killed.

Jan. 16: Goshen, Calif.

Gunmen killed six people, including a 16-year-old and her 10-month-old child, in a shooting that the police said was probably gang-related.

Nov. 22: Chesapeake, Va.

A Walmart employee opened fire in a break room as the store was preparing to close for the night, killing six people, the authorities said. The gunman was found dead, apparently from a self-inflicted gunshot wound, according to the police.

Nov. 20: Colorado Springs

Five people were killed and 17 wounded by gunfire in a shooting at an L.G.B.T.Q. nightclub. The gunman was hurt and taken to a hospital.

Nov. 13: Charlottesville, Va.

Three University of Virginia students, all members of the football team, were killed and two were wounded when a gunman, a former player, opened fire in a garage after a field trip to see a play in Washington.

Oct. 13: Raleigh, N.C.

A gunman, described by the authorities only as a “white male juvenile,” killed five people, including an off-duty police officer, and wounded two others. The attacks drew a large response from law enforcement agencies to the residential area near the Neuse River Greenway, a popular bike trail for Raleigh residents.

Sept. 7: Memphis, Tenn.

Memphis was effectively closed down during an hourslong manhunt for a 19-year-old gunman who killed four people while streaming some of the violence on Facebook Live. The violence involved several shootings and carjackings over the course of the day.

July 4: Highland Park, Ill.

Seven people were killed and dozens more wounded when a gunman opened fire from the roof of a building in Highland Park, a suburb north of Chicago, during a Fourth of July parade. A 21-year-old was taken into custody several hours later.