A burning oil depot on the Dnipro River in Kherson on Nov. 19.
Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Ukraine Under Attack: Documenting the Russian Invasion

Photographers in and around Ukraine have captured the horrors of war.

Shattered towns, mass graves and suffering beyond measure greet the Ukrainian forces steadily pushing back Russian troops, revealing the civilian and military toll of the war and the invaders’ occupation in the east and the south.

The Ukrainian counteroffensive and Russian retreat are making a mockery of the Kremlin’s claims to have annexed four regions of Ukraine after sham referendums — though Russia’s advantage in arms and its conscription of civilians could yet change that balance. The slow-moving war of summer, waged with long-range artillery that flattened whole towns, has given way to rapid Ukrainian advances.

But for Kyiv’s forces, the elation at retaking territory seized by the Russians is tempered by the brutal cost, both in and out of their own ranks, and by the knowledge that a large part of Ukraine remains in Moscow’s hands.

This, then, is what winning now looks like: ruined buildings, crumpled bridges, burned-out vehicles and depopulated places where the few residents who remain look haunted, many of them older, hungry, sick, cold. And everywhere, bodies — dead soldiers and civilians, in hastily dug graves, in blasted cars or just lying out in the open.

The Russians have retreated in the Kherson, Donetsk and Kharkiv regions, and even on the edges of the Luhansk region, with heavy casualties on both sides. In Zaporizhzhia, where a Russian-occupied nuclear power plant has been shelled repeatedly, the game of nuclear chicken continues.

With no end in sight to the war, it is hard to contemplate what it would take for Ukrainians to rebuild their lives and their country. The scale of the task is staggering.

For more than eight months, photographers with The New York Times and other news organizations throughout Ukraine have chronicled the ordeal of war.

This gallery contains graphic images.

Serhiy Novosad, 26, carried the body of his father, Serhiy Novosad, 49, on Nov. 23 to place him in a body bag while the body of his grandmother, Lyubov Novosad, 78, lay nearby. The Ukrainian police are investigating their deaths after they were killed by Russian soldiers and left inside a bunker in their yard, likely on Nov. 10, in Lvivsky Otrubi village in the Kherson region.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A destroyed airplane on an airstrip at the Kherson International Airport in the southern Ukrainian town of Chornobaivka on Nov. 20.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A memorial commemorating more than 100 protesters killed in the Euromaidan demonstrations that began nine years ago on Nov. 21 in Kyiv.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Crowds gathered for food handouts in Kherson, on Nov. 15.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Students at the Volodymyr the Great military boarding school in Kyiv participated in a ceremony awarding epaulettes to young cadets on Nov. 18.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Family members on Nov. 16 at the funeral of Maksym Kropyva, 44, a Ukrainian soldier who was killed eight days earlier fighting in the Mykolaiv region.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

The Antonivskiy bridge, which was destroyed by retreating Russian forces, on Nov. 16 in Kherson.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Ukrainian security forces were joined by the Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights, Dmytro Lubinets, on Nov. 16 as they walked through a prison and torture chamber in an office building, where Russian forces held and tortured Ukrainian prisoners in Kherson.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A residential neighborhood in Kyiv, on Nov. 15, where a building was struck by debris from a Russian missile that was shot down by Ukrainian air-defense systems.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier and a civilian rejoice in Kherson, on Nov. 12.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Celebrating the newly liberated city of Kherson, on Nov. 12.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier signed a flag of his country in the main square in Kherson, on Nov. 13.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

An apartment block that was damaged overnight by Russian bombardment, killing at least seven people, in the southern Ukrainian city of Mykolaiv, on Nov. 11.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A man covering up a blown-out window at his home in Prybuzke, on Nov. 12.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A broadcasting tower in Kherson that had been destroyed by Russian troops as they withdrew from the city, on Nov. 13.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A sign warning of mines in front of a former Russian barracks in Kherson, on Nov. 13.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Dancing into the night to celebrate Kherson’s liberation, on Nov. 12.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers in a bunker preparing for an operation in Bakhmut, a city in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region, on Nov. 5.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Apartments illuminated with improvised electricity sources during a rolling blackout across Kyiv, Ukraine’s capital, on Nov. 8.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Workers at the Zaporizhstal metallurgical plant in an underground bunker during an air raid alert in the southern Ukrainian city of Zaporizhzhia on Nov. 8.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Civilians crossing the remains of a bridge in Bakhmut on Nov. 5 that was damaged by Russian bombardment.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Members of the Ukrainian National Police training dogs in Kyiv on Nov. 9.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

A damaged vehicle in Bakhmut on Nov. 5.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A mortar firing toward Russian positions in Bakhmut on Nov. 5.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Relatives in Kharkiv, in northeastern Ukraine, in November at the funeral of Roman Vakulenko, 52, a Ukrainian soldier who was killed the previous month by Russian artillery.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers manning a checkpoint along the front line in Ukraine’s Kharkiv region on Nov. 1.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Displaced people from the Russian-occupied city of Enerhodar, Ukraine, receiving aid at a humanitarian center in Zaporizhzhia, in southeastern Ukraine, on Nov. 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers removing the body of a Russian soldier near the front line in Ukraine’s Kharkiv region on Nov. 1.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Walking past a statue in Kyiv, Ukraine, that had been wrapped in plastic and surrounded by sand bags to protect it from potential Russian shelling on Nov. 1.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

A Ukrainian tank traveling along a highway north of Kharkiv, Ukraine, on Nov. 2.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A Ukrainian artillery brigade firing a Grad multiple rocket launcher just outside the southern Ukrainian city of Mykolaiv on Oct. 31.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Residents waiting in line on Oct. 19 to receive free bread provided by the United Nations next to residential buildings that were heavily damaged during earlier airstrikes in Chernihiv, Ukraine.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Ukrainian sappers burying unexploded ordinance his team found near a school to be destroyed in part of Ukraine’s Kherson region that was previously occupied by Russian forces, on Oct. 24.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A former cardiology clinic in Chernihiv that was damaged by a Russian missile strike in March, on Oct. 19.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Empty Russian ammunition boxes and some live artillery shells lying scattered around a firing position in the village of Kamianka in the Kharkiv region on Oct. 19.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A team of Ukrainian sappers preparing on Oct. 24 to clear a building in part of Ukraine’s Kherson region of possible explosives and booby traps. The building was previously occupied by Russian forces.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A man walking past a destroyed apartment block that was hit by a Russian missile earlier in the month, on Oct. 24.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A controlled detonation by Ukrainian sappers destroying unexploded ordinance found near a school in a part of Ukraine’s Kherson region that was previously occupied by Russian forces, on Oct. 24.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times


A Ukrainian soldier with hand and chest wounds from an artillery strike receiving medical treatment at a stabilization clinic three miles from frontline fighting positions in the city of Bakhmut, which has been under constant shelling and assault by Russian forces for months, in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region, on Oct. 1.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Damaged ambulances in Bakhmut, in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region, on Oct. 19. The area has faced relentless shelling from Russian forces.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Mourning in eastern Ukraine on Oct. 18. at the funeral of a 42-year-old Ukrainian soldier who was killed by shrapnel during fighting.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Fishing in Kharkiv, Ukraine, on Oct. 17 beside a bridge that was blown up at the beginning of the war.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A drone reconnaissance unit with a volunteer battalion nearing its position in an abandoned village not far from Russian forces in Ukraine’s Donetsk region on Oct. 16.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Rescue workers combing through the rubble of a residential building in Kyiv, Ukraine, that was hit by a drone on Oct. 17.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Sheltering in the Teatralna metro station after a series of morning explosions in Kyiv on Oct. 17.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Waiting in line to receive free bread provided by the United Nations near buildings that were damaged in earlier airstrikes, in Chernihiv, in northern Ukraine, on Oct. 19.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

An 87-year-old woman weeping as she recalled surviving a recent missile strike that she said hit the house next door and damaged her family’s home, in Kupiansk, in the Kharkiv region, on Oct. 18.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Crews working to extinguish fires and search for missing people on Oct. 10 after a missile hit a residential building in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A body lay covered in foil after a Russian strike in Kyiv on Oct. 10. In Russia’s largest aerial assault since the early days of the war, missiles rained on at least 11 cities across Ukraine. President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia said the strike was retaliation for an explosion that destroyed sections of a bridge linking Russia to the Crimean Peninsula on Oct. 8.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Smoke billowing over Kyiv on Oct. 10.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Injured civilians in Kyiv on Oct. 10.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A damaged building in central Kharkiv on Oct. 10.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

The bodies of Russian soldiers lying on the side of a road outside Lyman, Ukraine, on Oct. 2, the day after Ukrainian forces retook it.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

An injured Ukrainian soldier getting treatment at a military field hospital in the Zaporizhzhia region on Oct. 1.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A photo taken on a government-arranged news tour showing a resident on Oct. 3 in the courtyard of the severely damaged Zymnensky Female Monastery in Sviatohirsk, Ukraine, where she had taken shelter.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Handing out humanitarian aid Oct. 2 on the outskirts of Izium, a city recently retaken by Ukrainian forces.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers gathering Russian flags to dispose of in the town of Lyman on Oct. 2, the day after they retook it.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A man outside his destroyed home in Lyman on Oct. 2.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

In a photo taken on a government-arranged news tour, abandoned Russian military vehicles and rocket launchers, ruined and rusting, are seen in Sviatohirsk on Oct. 3.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers with a 69-year-old man named Aleksandr, whom they suspected of spying for the Russians, in the eastern Ukraine region of Donetsk, on Sept. 27.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Pallbearers carried the coffin of Chief Sgt. Serhiy Grymaylo, 30, during his funeral in Novomoskovsk, Ukraine, on Sept. 29.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

The bodies of Russian soldiers lay on the side of the road as Ukrainian forces tow away a captured Russian artillery gun in Oskil, Ukraine, on Sept. 24.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

The ruins of St. George’s monastery in Dolyna, Ukraine, on Sept. 24.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier helping a woman leave the Lyman area on Sept. 22, as Russian forces were being driven out.

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Credit... Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Evacuees in Pokrovsk, Ukraine, on Sept. 28.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Residents crossing a destroyed bridge amid the sounds of shelling in Bakhmut, Ukraine, on Sept. 28.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

The site of 445 mostly unmarked graves in Izium, Ukraine, on Sept. 16.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Ukrainian tanks and military vehicles driving through the recently recaptured town of Balakliya on Sept. 15.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Residents of Balakliya gathering in the central square to receive humanitarian aid and meals on Sept. 15.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A smoldering apartment building in Bakhmut after a Russian strike on Sept. 20.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Ukrainian volunteers evacuating disabled residents of Bakhmut on Sept. 19.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A kindergarten classroom in Kapytolivka, a village near Izium, that was emblazoned with the Russian military symbol Z on Sept. 18.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A Ukrainian emergency worker collecting unexploded ordnance near Izium on Sept. 17.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Investigators on Sept. 16 at a site in Izium where 445 individual graves and one mass grave had been discovered.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Emergency workers after missile strikes on a Ukrainian police station in Kharkiv on Sept. 12.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Residents collecting water from a well in Kharkiv, on Sept. 12.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky making an unannounced visit to the recaptured city of Izium during a government arranged media tour, on Sept. 14.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A man sitting in his car amid the destruction of a school, which was used as a Russian base, in the recaptured village of Verbivka, during a government arranged media tour, on Sept. 13.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Residents collecting belongings from a destroyed apartment block in Kharkiv the morning after strikes on the building on Sept. 12.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Lyudmila Somova leading a math class for her first-grade pupils at Irpin Christian Gymnasium on Sept. 1, their first day back at school since the start of the invasion in late February.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Denys, a soldier whose code name is Mango, doing physical therapy in Kyiv, on Sept. 2. Denys had been taken prisoner by Russian forces at the Azovstal factory in Mariupol. He lost his left hand in the war and was released by the Russians in a prisoner swap.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

A wall in Kyiv with a mural showing a soldier firing a Javelin antitank missile, on Sept. 5.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

A man walking his dog past a Mykolaiv hotel that had been hit by a missile strike, on Sept. 4.

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Credit...Jim Huylebroek for The New York Times

Soldiers carrying the coffin of a Ukrainian Special Forces sniper and reconnaissance specialist known as Tengri after his funeral service in Kyiv on Sept. 3.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Coffins of several unidentified civilian victims of the Russian invasion and occupation awaiting burial at the Bucha City Cemetery, on Sept. 2.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Family members of a soldier who was killed on the front line visiting his grave in Lviv, in western Ukraine, on Aug. 24, the country’s Independence Day.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

An artillery unit from Ukraine’s 58th Brigade near the town of Bakhmut firing toward an advancing Russian infantry unit around the town of Pokrovske, on Aug. 10.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

The debris of a church on Aug. 11 after a Russian attack in the Mykolaiv region.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Three girls and their grandmother waiting inside their car in a convoy leaving Russian-occupied territory on their way to a Ukrainian-controlled crossing into the city of Zaporizhzhia on Aug. 14.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Twenty-one unidentified bodies found in the Bucha region being laid to rest in a mass burial at the Bucha Cemetery on Aug. 17.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Tatiana Marinchenko touching her husband, Oleg Marinchenko, a Ukrainian soldier, while joined by her father-in-law, Ivan Marinchenko, and her daughter, Ira Kalinichenko, at a funeral for Oleg in Kyiv on Aug. 23. Mr. Marinchenko was killed on Aug. 19 in a mortar attack in the Kherson region while working as a medic and chaplain with the Ukrainian military.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Removing debris from a bombed-out building damaged in a recent Russian rocket strike on Nikopol on Aug. 15.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Evacuating a woman who could not walk from an apartment building in the Donetsk region on Aug. 23.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Thousands swarmed a display of captured Russian tanks placed in central Kyiv on Aug. 21, days before Independence Day in Ukraine.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Swimming on Aug. 14 in an estuary, one of the few bodies of water along Ukraine’s Black Sea coast that isn’t mined or used for some military purpose.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

A beach in front of the Pokrovsky Cathedral in the Obolon district in Kyiv, on Aug. 22.

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Credit...Jim Huylebroek for The New York Times

Ukrainian emergency rescue teams, wearing suits to protect against radiation, practicing a nuclear disaster drill in the city of Zaporizhzhia on Aug. 17.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Ukrainian servicemen walking through a school bombed by Russian forces at the front line in the Mykolaiv region on Aug. 11.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Carrying bottles of drinking water from a public well in Sloviansk, Ukraine, on Aug. 8 past an unexploded rocket that struck overnight.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

A man tied to a gas pipe with smoke billowing from his apartment in the frontline town of Bakhmut on Aug. 7. The man, who neighbors said had fallen asleep while smoking, setting fire to his apartment, was punished by others in the complex.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

A fighter with Dnipro-1, a unit in Ukraine’s National Guard, walking through an underground bunker along the frontline outside Sloviansk, Ukraine, on Aug. 3.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Ukrainian firefighters responding to the site of a rocket attack on a residential building in the eastern Ukrainian town of Bakhmut on Aug. 5.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers carrying the body of Col. Pistun Yaroslav Mykolayovych, 41, during his funeral in Bucha on Aug. 6.

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Credit...Laura Boushnak for The New York Times

A boy amid rubble and fallen trees in front of a blast-damaged apartment building in the eastern Ukrainian town of Kostiantynivka on Aug. 5.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier on a step leading to a system of frontline trenches facing Russian forces near the Ukrainian town of Barvinkove on Aug. 1.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Tania Reshetnikov with her dog in front of her family’s home, which was destroyed by Russian rockets in the Ukrainian frontline town of Bakhmut on Aug. 2.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Ukrainian volunteers bringing drinking water to residents of an apartment block in the town of Druzhkovka on Aug. 3.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Residents at a funeral on Aug. 1 for Andriy Mishchenko, a soldier who had fought with the Azov Regiment, a Ukrainian nationalist group, in Baryshivka, in north-central Ukraine.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Rainwater on Aug. 2 fills a market hit by Russian missiles in the Ukrainian frontline town of Bakhmut.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Families of Ukrainian P.O.W.s gathering in Kyiv on July 30.

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Credit...Laura Boushnak for The New York Times

A first-grade classroom in Kramatorsk hit by a Russian strike on July 22.

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Credit...Laura Boushnak for The New York Times

Family members mourning Vitaly Babich, a Ukrainian soldier who was killed during an air raid in Kramatorsk, on July 19.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers at their base in a village retaken from Russian forces in eastern Ukraine on July 22.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Members of the Azov Regiment near the front lines in the Zaporizhzhia region, eastern Ukraine, on July 21. The regiment began as a far-right militia, and Russian propagandists have pointed to it as evidence to support their unfounded claims about the influence of Nazism in Ukraine.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Azov Regiment fighters taking shelter and watching the sky for drones after nearby explosions in eastern Ukraine on July 21.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

At the site of a missile strike in Dnipro, one of Ukraine’s most populous cities, on July 15.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

The ruins of houses destroyed by Russian shelling in Moschun, a village near Kyiv, on July 7.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A man wounded after a missile struck near his home in Kramatorsk, in eastern Ukraine, on July 7.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Hennady Kononenko, 74, and his wife Nina, 76, outside their destroyed home after it was hit by shelling in Sloviansk, in Donetsk Province, on July 5.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Firefighters in a Sloviansk market after it was struck by a rocket on July 5.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Visitors in Irpin, near Kyiv, on July 3, near a pile of vehicles destroyed earlier in the conflict.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers practicing applying bandages in a tactical medical training exercise in Kyiv on July 1.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

In front of a destroyed housing block in Hostomel, a suburb of Kyiv, on July 7.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Neighbors trying to extinguish a fire in a residential area of Bakhmut, Donetsk Province, minutes after multiple rockets struck there on July 10.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

A Bakhmut resident examining shelling damage outside her home on July 8.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

One of the houses engulfed in flames after multiple rockets hit the residential area in Bakhmut on July 10.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers taking a break near the site of the July 10 strike on Bakhmut, just minutes after the attack.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers in their compound not far from the front lines in Donetsk Province on July 11.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Emergency crews working at a site where rockets hit two buildings overnight in the village of Chasiv Yar, near Bakhmut, on July 10.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Climbing on a display of destroyed Russian military vehicles by the National Military History Museum in Mykhailivska Square, Kyiv, on July 3.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

The entrance of a metro station in Kyiv on July 3.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A resident surveying shelling damage in Sloviansk’s market area on July 5.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

A damaged shop near an apartment building and a resort hit by Russian missiles in Odesa, southern Ukraine, on July 7.

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Credit...Laetitia Vancon for The New York Times

Denys Bevz, 26, a Ukrainian soldier, took a seven-day leave from fighting in the southern Kherson region to travel to Kyiv, where he married Nadiia, 27, on July 9.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers fire a French donated CAESAR self-propelled howitzer at a Russian target in Donetsk on June 24.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Praying and singing at the funeral for Artemiy Dymyd, a soldier, at the Lychakiv cemetery in Lviv, western Ukraine, on June 21.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Gravediggers burying Sergiy Kabashnyy, 48, at the cemetery in Bucha, near Kyiv, on June 17.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier who was wounded by artillery being treated at a bus stop turned aid station near Bakhmut on June 23.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers at the scene of a missile strike on what appeared to be a military depot in the eastern town of Druzhkivka on June 20.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Doctors and nurses at a hospital in Sloviansk working to stabilize a Ukrainian soldier wounded by shrapnel from a Russian artillery strike on June 1.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

An abandoned mirror in Hostomel, northwest of Kyiv, on June 20, outside a destroyed house that was part of a large residential project occupied by Russian troops during clashes with Ukrainian forces in late February.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Anna Svetlaya, 67, was wounded by a missile strike in Mykolaiv on June.

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Credit...Laetitia Vancon for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier at a mass grave in the hills above the city of Lysychansk, in eastern Ukraine, on June 16.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

In Lysychansk on June 15.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A Ukrainian army medical unit giving aid to Maksym, a soldier who had been injured by an artillery strike at front line in Donetsk Province on June 29.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Children in a park in Borodyanka, near Kyiv, on June 2.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Oleh Turash on June 8, revisiting the basement of a school in Yahidne, in northern Ukraine, where he was held with over 300 villagers by Russian forces in March.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Monks and others taking cover in a stairwell at the Sviatohirsk monastery, near Sloviansk, as Russian artillery shells landed nearby on June 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Firefighters at a warehouse that was bombed in Sloviansk on June 28.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Preparing a body for a funeral in Lviv on June 2.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

Fires at the Lysychansk oil refinery on June 8.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Police and forensic investigators exhuming the bodies of seven men believed to be civilians who were killed by Russian forces in March near Vorzel, in the Kyiv region.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

An unexploded Russian rocket in Lysychansk on June 8.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier, Denys Pogrebny, 41, left, and Petro Kashpyrko, right, a civilian, exercising in a physiotherapy session at a rehabilitation center in Irpin on June 29.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

School graduates danced in front of the opera and ballet theater in Odesa on June 15.

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Credit...Laetitia Vancon for The New York Times

Watching a concert at the theater of the Lviv National Philharmonic on June 28.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Balloons for sale in the center of Lviv on June 26.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

Ukrainian troops firing artillery at Russian positions in the Donetsk region of eastern Ukraine on May 22.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A fighter jet, most likely Russian, firing flares over Ukrainian positions on the front line on May 22 in the Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A Ukrainian sniper put a suppressor on his rifle at a small base in the eastern Ukrainian town of Barvinkove in the Kharkiv region on May 22.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Destroyed vehicles at a complex bombed by Russian forces on May 23 in the frontline town of Bakhmut in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Mykola Telegin clearing debris in his daughter’s apartment after a Russian strike hit a residential area in Sloviansk on May 31.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Volunteers from Britain and Ukraine working with the aid organization Vostok-SOS carried Zinaida Riabtseva, who is 77 and blind, down five flights of stairs during a May 30 evacuation in Bakhmut.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Anna Vereschak, 43, and her daughters Milana, 5, and Diana, 4, escaped their village on the front and lines boarded an evacuation train in Pokrovsk on May 10.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Ukrainian policemen disposed of the body of a 65-year-old woman, known to neighbors as Baba Masha, or Grandma Masha, who was diabetic and unable to get the medication she needed because of the war. She was buried May 24 in a mass grave for those killed in fighting, in the city of Lysychansk in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers on the front line near Izium in the Donetsk region on May 27.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Soldiers with the Carpathian Sich Battalion reviewing drone footage of an attack against Russian forces near the front in the Kharkiv region on May 11.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Ukrainian artillery team engaging in an exchange with Russian forces four miles away near the village of Vuhledar in the Donetsk region on May 31.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

An overturned car in front of a house in the Saltivka neighborhood of Kharkiv, Ukraine, on May 27.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Vladislav Tkachenko, 23, at his temporary home in Lviv on May 24. Mr. Tkachenko lost his left leg on the second day of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine when artillery fire blew it off and tore into his right thigh, leaving a web of dark red scars. He was among the first in what Ukrainian doctors fear could become a devastating surge of amputations as Ukraine pushed to regain territory and the fighting in the east intensified.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

The coffins of three Ukrainian soldiers were carried from a church where they were mourned in Lviv, Ukraine, on May 6.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

The family of Yurii Huk, 41, including his daughter, Darynka, 8, his niece and other relatives, during his funeral outside Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church in Lviv on May 16. He died during an artillery bombardment in eastern Ukraine on May 9.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

National flags flying at a military cemetery in the eastern city of Dnipro on May 10.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A family that fled from the Russian-occupied city of Mariupol arrived in Zaporizhzhia in southeast Ukraine on May 2.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Twin sisters Nika and Miya, 3, on May 8 surveying vehicles destroyed in the war near Irpin.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Destroyed Russian military vehicles by the National Military History Museum in Mykhailivska Square in Kyiv, Ukraine, on May 23.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier assigned to a demining team worked to detonate unexploded ordnance collected from a Russian munitions storage area in a village northwest of Kyiv.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Emergency workers removing the remains of four Russian soldiers at a Russian fighting position that was struck by Ukrainian artillery in the previously occupied village of Malaya Rohan outside the eastern Ukrainian city of Kharkiv on May 18.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Irpin, a suburb of Kyiv, lays in ruins on May 2 after weeks of fierce fighting between Russian and Ukrainian forces on the doorstep of the capital.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier atop an abandoned Russian tank on May 25 in the Seversky Donets river as he tries to salvage an abandoned heavy machine gun. The failed river crossing that took place at this spot over several days in early May was one of the most lethal engagements of the war for the Russian army.

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Ukrainian soldiers loading onto an armored vehicle as they head toward the frontline near the city of Kramatorsk in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region on May 25.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A cat near the body of a Russian soldier on May 19 outside the destroyed school in Vilkhivka, a village that had been occupied for weeks by Russian forces.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

The body of a civilian, reportedly killed by Russian forces, on the streets on April 2 in Bucha.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Exhuming bodies from a mass grave in Bucha on April 8.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Bodies found after Russian forces retreated from Bucha, on April 6.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers attempted to salvage parts from a destroyed Russian armored vehicle in the recently liberated town of Bucha on April 3.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Russian rockets struck a neighborhood in central Kharkiv on April 17.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

The funeral of Ivan Datsko, 38, a Ukrainian soldier who was killed in fighting in the eastern Donetsk region, at Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church in Lviv on April 21.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Sister Diogena Tereshkevych comforting people who were displaced from eastern Ukraine inside a bomb shelter during an air raid alert in the western Ukrainian city of Lviv on April 15.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Borodyanka, a commuter town not far from the capital, Kyiv, on April 5, where as many as 200 people were missing and presumed dead under the rubble.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

An apartment building heavily damaged by Russian bombings in Kramatorsk on April 10.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Dozens of vehicles and some people on foot, clinging to their belongings, streamed into Kharkiv, once Ukraine’s second largest city, on April 29, fleeing fighting in a town to the north.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

An artist entertained children with soap bubbles in central Lviv, in western Ukraine, on April 7.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers walked through a street in the village of Shestovytsia, where a column of destroyed Russian military vehicles was cleared away, on April 29.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

A wounded Ukrainian soldier is brought into a recovery ward of a military hospital after hours of surgery, where doctors were trying to save his arm following an attack by Russian forces, in Zaporizhzhia, in South Eastern on April 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Family members mourning Oleksandr Pokhodenko and Mykola Pysariv on April 26 in Zmiiv, Ukraine.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Hlib Kihitov, 21, paying his final respects to his twin brother, Ehor Kihitov, in Lviv on April 26.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A woman peered out from a bombed-out apartment in central Kyiv on April 29 after an overnight Russian missile strike.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Tamara Mikheenko, 70, cries while in hiding in a basement shelter as she talks about the incessant shelling of the frontline town of Orikhiv, where Russian positions are only a few miles away in Zaporizhzhia region on April 26.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Russian insignia left behind on the wall of Valriy Tymchuk’s home in Lypivka, Ukraine, on April 15.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Trostyanets, Ukraine, on April 1 after the Ukrainian military retook it from the Russians.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A military funeral ceremony in Lviv on April 6.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Maksim Syroizhko, a Ukrainian soldier, with his girlfriend, Yana Matvapaeva, on April 21 in Kyiv. The couple said that they had been together for the past five years but, until that day, had not seen each other since the war began.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Families arriving in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, on April 21 after fleeing Mariupol as it came under siege by Russian forces.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Residents of Bucha, a town retaken by Ukraine, reaching for food distributed by Ukrainian soldiers on April 2.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Tatyana Petrovna, 72, in the garden of a Bucha home where the bodies of three civilians lay on April 4.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Crumpled cars littered a main road leading out of the recently liberated town of Bucha on April 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A retired teacher known as Auntie Lyuda was killed on March 5. Her dog waited outside her home more than a month later on April 6.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Four freshly dug graves, for an early-morning funeral, at a cemetery in Irpin on April 16.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

On April 26, Iryna Abramova at the grave of her husband, Oleh Abramov, who was killed by Russian forces outside their home in Bucha.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers trying to save a mortally wounded man moments after a group of civilians was hit by a mortar in Irpin on March 6.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Russian missile hit barracks used by airborne troops from the Ukrainian army’s 79th Brigade in Mykolaiv. Several soldiers were killed in the attack, which took off the facade of the building, leaving gray steel bunk beds visible from the front courtyard, on March 8.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Emergency employees and volunteers carried an injured pregnant woman from a maternity hospital damaged by Russian shelling in Mariupol on March 9. She was reported to have later died.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

A Russian tank attack on an apartment building in Mariupole on March 11.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Boarding an evacuation train in Odesa on March 15.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A Ukrainian volunteer fighter outside the civilian airport in Mykolaiv on March 10.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Russian forces hit a shopping mall on March 21 in Kyiv in what appeared to be the most powerful explosion to that date in the capital.

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Credit... Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A man grieving over the body of a victim after pieces of a Russian cruise missile fell onto a high-rise building in Kyiv on March 17.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

People trying to escape from Irpin, near Kyiv, took shelter under a destroyed bridge on March 5.

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Credit...Emilio Morenatti/Associated Press

Civilians being evacuated across the Irpin River into Kyiv on March 8.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Bodies being buried in a mass grave on the outskirts of Mariupol on March 9.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Ukrainian soldiers waiting to advance during an operation to clear out remaining Russian forces on March 29, in Irpin.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Destroyed Russian tanks on a main road after battles near Brovary, close to Kyiv, on March 10.

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Credit...Felipe Dana/Associated Press

Ukrainian soldiers taking cover from incoming artillery fire in Irpin, on the outskirts of Kyiv, on March 13.

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Credit...Felipe Dana/Associated Press

Anzhelika Verveyko was comforted by a friend at the funeral on March 6 for her husband, a sergeant who was killed in an artillery strike on his position north of Kyiv on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Taria, 27, in a tent where she was living with her two children, and other Ukrainian families in a subway station on March 2. Many of them had been there for about a week as Russian and Ukrainian forces fought on the outskirts of Kyiv.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Fleeing the war in Ukraine. A train station in Przemysl, Poland, on March 14.

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Credit...Erin Schaff/The New York Times

Ukrainian children riding an evacuation train through Kyiv as it traveled west toward Lviv on March 3.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Ukrainian families running across train tracks to get to the next westbound train in Kyiv on March 4.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A home on Kyiv’s outskirts that was damaged after a Russian Iskander missile landed nearby during the first week of the war.

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Credit... Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Ilona Koval, center, the choreographer for the Ukrainian national figure skating team, fleeing Ukraine with her daughter, left, and a family friend on March 1.

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Credit...Laetitia Vancon for The New York Times

A Ukrainian mother and her newborn in a maternity ward in the basement of a hospital in Kyiv on March 2.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A refugee family from Ukraine arriving at a train station in Budapest on March 5.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Vitali Slobodianiuk, right, and Volodymyr Kotsyuba, who are Ukrainian, on a train from Prague to Przemysl in Poland on March 8. They were going back to Ukraine to join the fight.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier digging in at a beachfront position in Odesa on March 16.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A military funeral for three Ukrainian soldiers in Lviv, in western Ukraine, on March 31.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

The morgue in Mykolaiv on March 12. Casualties, both military and civilian, accumulated so fast it could barely keep pace, with bodies stacked side by side or on top of one another, covered in sheets or carpets, if at all.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

The body of a Russian soldier next to an armored vehicle that Ukrainian soldiers said was Russian, in Kharkiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A residential building was hit by missiles in Kyiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Russian attacks damaged radar arrays and other equipment at a Ukrainian military site outside Mariupol on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Julia, a teacher and a volunteer, waiting to be deployed to fight Russian troops around Kyiv on Feb. 26.

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Credit... Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

People lining up at a long-distance bus station in the center of Kyiv on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A Russian armored personnel carrier burning next to an unidentified soldier’s body during a fight with the Ukrainian armed forces in Kharkiv on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Sergey Bobok/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Covering a body after bombings in Chuhuiv on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Aris Messinis/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Smoke from a military airport in Chuhuiv near Kharkiv, Ukraine, on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Aris Messinis/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

A family from Ukraine after crossing the border into Poland at Medyka on Feb. 26.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Olha Zapotochna and her 3-year-old son, Arthur, after crossing the border from Ukraine into Poland, on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Maciek Nabrdalik for The New York Times

Volunteers filling sand bags in Kropyvnytskyi, southern Ukraine, on Feb. 27, in an effort to fortify the city’s defenses.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Military volunteers getting weapons in Fastiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Cleaning up debris after a residential building was hit by missiles in southern Kyiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Sunday service at St. Paraskeva Orthodox Church in Kalynivka, Ukraine, on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Dusk in Kyiv on Feb. 24 as Russian forces were advancing on the city.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times